The event saw Philip, 96, who has held the title of Captain General of the marines for 64 years, inspect troops at the annual Captain General's Parade on the palace forecourt.
It is not the first time a newspaper has prematurely announced the duke's death, with the Sun making a similar error in May when the duke announced his retirement from public engagements.
The story coincided with the Duke's last public engagements before he retires Wednesday.
Prince Philip has also made 637 solo visits overseas, written 14 books and given 5,496 speeches since 1952, the royal family said on Twitter.
Philip has carried out 637 overseas visits on his own in the past 65 years, given nearly 5,500 speeches, and served as patron, president or member of more than 780 organizations. He made the decision to reduce his duties five years ago, but wanted to keep many responsibilities.
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During the rainy event, Philip met with representatives from organization, including including two Royal Marines who have completed the entire 1664 miles. (AFP) The Queen and Prince Philip wave to the crowds following her coronation at Westminster in 1953.
He became the longest-serving consort in the British monarchy's history in 2009 and is the oldest ever male member of the British Royal Family.
The announcement in May that the Duke was stepping down came after a day of speculation that the steadfast companion of the Queen for 70 years may have died.
Philip announced in May he would be retiring from royal engagements after supporting the monarch in her role as head of state and attending events for his own charities and organisations.
They have four children and eight grandchildren.
He also asked a Scottish driving instructor: "How do you keep the natives off the booze long enough to pass the test?" and enquired, "Still throwing spears?" of an Indiginous Australian.